What is Operating System (OS) and Types of operating system

What is Operating System (OS) and Types of operating system

Friends, in today’s post, we will know what is operating system (OS)?, and Types of operating system what is its specialty? And why is the Operating System necessary for our computer?, Full operation of the computer requires several components. One of the important components of which is the Operating System.

Have you ever gone to a shop while buying a mobile or laptop, PC and must have asked that you should take an Android phone. Or take a laptop that has Windows 10.

But have you ever thought about what is operating system (OS)?, how it works, and how many types of Operating System are there.


You hardly know about it beforehand. But after reading this post, you will get a better understanding about the Operating System. Therefore, you must read the post till the end.

What is Operating System (OS)

A computer operating system is a group of software programs that establish interfaces between human and computer hardware. It is also known as Short Form OS.

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What is Operating System (OS) and Types of operating system

Operating system is required to operate the computer. Operating system is an important part of computer. Which executes all programs in Computer.

Any program in the computer comes in contact with the Operating System before it runs. We can also call this the master control program. Because the operating system controls the software running in the computer.

The main function of the operating system is to take the instructions given by us as computer Input and process them and execute them as Output.

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Now you must have understood that our computer has all the software. We need an operating system to run them.

Operating system Names

There are different operating systems depending on the task. Here I am going to tell the name of some operating systems which are used more by the people.

  • Linux Operating System
  • Google`s Android OS
  • Apple iOS
  • Apple macOS
  • Microsoft windows

Types of Operating System

As Computer is expanding in its field. Similarly, it is also being used for big works in its field.

A heavy operating system is required to operate a heavy software. Therefore, depending on the work, the Operating System is divided into different parts.

Now you must have understood that there are different types of Operating System according to usage and requirement.

1. Multi User Operating System

In this operating system, more than one user can work simultaneously. And it keeps the balance between all the users. And caters to the needs of every user.

2. Single User Operating System

In a single user operating system, only one user is allowed to work at a time. More than one user cannot work on it simultaneously. It is the most commonly used operating system.

3. Multi Programming Operating System

In this operating system, the user can run more than one task in his computer simultaneously. And can easily switch from one work to another. It is usually divided into two parts.

  • Preemptive Multitasking Operating System

This type of Operating System is shared and used by many programs and hardware devices. It divides its Computation Time inside functions.

And on the basis of a set criteria (Predefined Criteria), a program can be run by stopping the already running program.

  • Co-Operating Multitasking Operating System

It is the simplest form of multitasking. In this operating system, a program uses the CPU as long as it is needed.

If no program is running in the CPU. So you can run any other program in it.

4. Time Sharing Operating System

In this operating system, more than one user can use the computer’s program simultaneously. In this task, the computer allocates a time to each user or program for use of its resources. Which is called time slice or quantum.

This operating system requires time management. And this requires the correct management of memory, as many programs are present in the main memory simultaneously.

In a time management system, all programs are brought to the main memory in turn, based on time slices. And are sent to memory upon completion of time slices. This process is called swapping.

5. Batch Processing Operating System

In the Batch Processing Operating System, all the same tasks are organized in a batch and processed together.

In this type of operating system, batch monitor software is used for such tasks. In which the user does not need to interfere.

They are used in Numerical Analysis, Bill Printing, Payroll etc.

6. Distributed Operating System

This type of operating system is used as a single system by connecting multiple independent computers. It is not necessary that all the computers are in one place. They can be connected even if the computers are in different places.

These computers are connected through Local Area Network and Wide Are Network technology. Connecting Computers in a confined area is called LAN or Local Area Network.

The same is called WAN or Wide Area Network to connect thousands of kilometers of Computers to each other. When many LANs are connected to each other within a city. So this type of network is called metropolitan area.

7. Real Time Operating System

It is an operating system in which execution of real time application is done. Such as autopilot mechanisms used in aircrafts.

In this, the output of one program can be used as the output of another program. Therefore, delay in Excitation of first program may result in second program and stop excitation.

In real time operating system, a deadline is given to complete any given task. And that work has to be completed in this stipulated time.

There are mainly two types of real time operating systems.

  • Hard Real Time Operating System

This system guarantees timely completion of an important task. If the performance of the program fails in case the task is not completed on time.

  • Soft Real Time Operating System

In this system, a deadline is given to complete a task. However, the execution of the work does not fail in it. Because the execution of a task can be completed before or after the deadline.

Why is the operating system necessary

As I have already told you that the operating system establishes a relationship between the user and the computer hardware. Which we call the user interface. And without the OS, no connection between the computer and the user will be established.

With which you will not be able to perform any type of action in your computer. From this you can understand that a computer without OS is like a blank box.

Because Memory Management, File Management, Programming Management and Input-Output Management etc. will not be able to do the work done by the OS.

Function of Operating System

What is an operating system?, and its type, you must have understood. Now we know about its functions. How the operating system loads after the computer turns ON. And executes software opened by the user.

1. Processing Management

Management of the CPU of the computer (Central Processing Unit) is done by the operating system itself. In this, all programs are executed one by one. The Operating System divides the time of all programs for a central processing unit.

2. Memory Management

The operating system performs an important function of memory management for successful excitation of programs. In which some places in memory are preserved.

Which is divided between programs. Along with this, care is also taken that programs can get different places of memory.

While inputting or outputting a program, the operating system also has the function of storing data and information in its designated location.

3. Input-Output Management

The operating system also has the job of reading the data from the input unit to the appropriate place in the memory and store the received result from the memory to the output unit.

The BIOS (Basic Input-Output System) is used for this. This includes boot firmware and power management.

This instruction is given to the computer only when programming. What we have to input and what to take output, the rest of the work is done by the operating system.

4. File Management

The Operating System provides the facility to store files in a directory in a systematic manner. During the excitation of a program, reading it from the Secondary Memory and inserting it into the Primary Memory is also done by the Operating System.

5. Error Detecting

While working in a program, the software hangs or an error occurs. So it detects him. Recovering errors is also done by the operating system.

6. Security

We can set the password for our system to keep our documents private. Or you can set password by adding user separately. So that anyone will be able to use the system but they will not be able to see your documents. This facility provides us with the operating system itself.

What is the user interface

The process of establishing a connection between a computer system and a user is called a user interface. The user interface is termed as an instrument that affects a programmer.

The user interface is mainly of two types.

1. Graphical User Interface (GUI)

Graphics are used in this interface using the elements displayed on the screen, such as images, icons, Menu or Window. Operating systems like Windows, Macintosh, Motif, Linux etc. fall within the graphical user interface.

2. Character User Interface (CUI)

It is also known as Command Line Interface. In this type of interface, the user has to press a different key for each command. It is also called command-drive user interface. Dos and Unix Operating System are covered under the Character User Interface.

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Friends, I sincerely hope that the information given by me is what is the computer operating system?

After reading this post, you must have known about the types of computer operating system.

Friends, if you have any questions or suggestions related to Computer Operating System, then do let us know by commenting.

Share the post with your friends on social media as much as possible. This also enabled them to get information about the computer operating system.


1. What is the world’s first operating system (OS)?
Ans: The world’s first operating system is IBM OS 360.

2. Which is the smallest operating system in the world?
Ans: The world’s smallest operating system is KOLIBRI O.S. Which is found with the GUI (Graphical User Interface). Its size is very small. Contains 1.2 MB or 3MB.

3. What is a popular computer operating system (OS)?
Ans: The popular computer operating system is Windows. Which is used in computers and laptops.

4. What is popular mobile operating system (OS)?
Ans: The popular mobile operating system is Android. Which is the most used mobile operating system in the world.

5. The operating system is said to load into the computer’s memory?
Ans: The process of loading the operating system into the computer’s memory is called booting. And this work is done by Boot Strap Loader. Which is also known as boot loader or boot manager.